alces alces taille

Nygrén, Tuire, Jyrki Pusenius, Raisa Tiilikainen, and Jan Korpelainen. They strip trees and shrubs of their bark and rub their foreheads and preorbital glands into the bare spot to advertise their presence to the opposite sex. Client Groups. The youngest bones were found in Scotland and are roughly 3,900 years old. [91] The moose hoof splays under load, increasing surface area, which limits sinking of the moose foot into soft ground or snow, and which increases efficiency when swimming. Moose can affect the rate of nutrient cycling, floral composition, rate of forest succession, and biological diversity of a forest. L'orignal (Alces américanus) est un mammifère herbivore appartenant à la famille des Cervidae. (Bowyer, et al., 2003; Franzmann, 1981; Renecker and Schwartz, 2007), Wolves, brown or grizzly bears, black bears, and cougars are major predators of moose, and to a lesser extent coyotes and Amur tigers. [92][93], On firm ground, a bull moose leaves a visible impression of the dewclaws in its footprint, while a cow moose or calf does not leave a dewclaw impression. An Alces alces in nahilalakip ha genus nga Alces, ngan familia nga Cervidae. Plant diversity is typically low and the growing season is short. [134] Though moose are usually hunted by packs, there are cases in which single wolves have successfully killed healthy, fully-grown moose. These pits, which can be up to 4 m × 7 m (13 ft 1 in × 23 ft 0 in) in area and 2 m (6 ft 7 in) deep, would have been camouflaged with branches and leaves. Wolves typically kill moose by tearing at their haunches and perineum, causing massive blood loss. Since the 1990s, moose populations have declined dramatically in much of temperate North America, although they remain stable in Arctic and subarctic regions. [57], Bull moose have antlers like other members of the deer family. Il possède un nez large, une petite queue, de longues pattes, un cou assez court, des sabots élargis et palmés. Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream). Moose between the ages of two and eight are seldom killed by wolves. [102] Typically, however, the antlers of a mature bull are between 1.2 m (3.9 ft) and 1.5 m (4.9 ft). Beyond the incalculable cost in terms of human life, moose collisions cause significant property damage, escalate insurance premiums, can cause a local moose population to decline and reduce recreational opportunities. Pp. a distribution that more or less circles the Arctic, so occurring in both the Nearctic and Palearctic biogeographic regions. [84], If a bull moose is castrated, either by accidental or chemical means, he will quickly shed his current set of antlers and then immediately begin to grow a new set of misshapen and deformed antlers that he will wear the rest of his life without ever shedding again. Traductions en contexte de "alces" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : Both E. rangiferi and E. alces also seem capable of causing disease in some other species of cervids, in addition to their natural host (Lankester and Fong, 1989). Annales Zoologici Fennici 44, no. Moose aggressively defend themselves and their young with their robust antlers and sharp hooves. Calves can browse and follow their mother at 3 weeks old and are weaned at 5 months. The population in the past 20 years has risen to over 2,900 animals. Cette conception graphique d’animal réel d’orignaux dans la nature fait un grand cadeau ou présent pour n’importe qui qui aime ou est intéressé par l’orignal, l’animal et le portrait des animaux. Long, cold winters and short, wet summers. Moose: Alces alces "I giacimenti quaternari di vertebrati fossili nell'Italia nord-orientale", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T56003281A22157381.en, New Hampshire's moose population vs climate change, "Survey estimates Maine has 76,000 moose", Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife – Moose Hunting Permits, Moose are on the Loose - Connecticut Public Broadcasting Network, Forests lure moose to Massachusetts / The Christian Science Monitor, "A Moose Still on the Loose in Eastern Iowa", "What's devastating the wild moose population in New England? Predicting locations of moose-vehicle collisions in Sweden. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. ALCES Online provides fast, attractive, and customizable maps, graphs and tables. Populations expanded greatly with improved habitat and protection, but now the moose population is declining rapidly. In Eurasia, Alces alces have a range on the west from Scandinavia, Poland and southern Czech Republic to Siberia (Russia) in the east. In North America, moose are found throughout much of Alaska and Canada and just south of the border between the contiguous United States and Canada, but extend farther southward down the Rocky Mountains to Utah and Colorado. Up through Classical times, the species was certainly thriving in both Gaul and Magna Germania, as it appears in military and hunting accounts of the age. Moose were successfully introduced on Newfoundland in 1878 and 1904,[36] where they are now the dominant ungulate, and somewhat less successfully on Anticosti Island in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. In 2002, populations of the United States and Canada were estimated at 1,000,000. However, moose often give warning signs prior to attacking, displaying their aggression by means of body language. During this time both sexes will call to each other. Individual hairs are 15 to 25 cm long and hollow, resulting in excellent insulation. Wild mammals of North America: Biology, management and conservation. A new set of antlers will then regrow in the spring. It is more likely that all extant lineages of moose originated from Central Asia within the last 60,000 years, supporting a single species hypothesis rather than a two or three species hypothesis. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press. Changes in the relationship between palmate and cervine antlers in moose in southeastern Norway. Kie, J., R. Bowyer, K. Stewart. Confirmation of this is not available due to a lack of studies, although it is known that they depend less on sight than their sense of hearing or smell. It has been hypothesized that this is due to the differences in nutritional needs of the sexes due to body size differences. (Franzmann, 1981; Schwartz and Hundertmark, 1993; Hundertmark, et al., 2002; Schwartz, 1992; Schwartz, 2007), Many calves, as much as 50% or more, do not live beyond their first six weeks of life due to predation by bears and wolves. The triangular warning signs common in Sweden, Norway, and Finland have become coveted souvenirs among tourists traveling in these countries, causing road authorities so much expense that the moose signs have been replaced with imageless generic warning signs in some regions. from a high of 5,000 animals in 2005. [citation needed] Moose are very limber animals with highly flexible joints and sharp, pointed hooves, and are capable of kicking with both front and back legs. Moose herbivory, browse quality, and nutrient cycling in an Alaskan treeline community. Domestication of moose was investigated in the Soviet Union before World War II. Ecology 65, no. In the early days of American colonization, the wapiti was often called a gray moose and the moose was often called a black moose, but early accounts of the animals varied wildly, adding to the confusion.[12]. Moose are mostly diurnal. 2020 - Découvrez le tableau "ALCES ALCES" de ivan schoonooghe sur Pinterest. Pp. Ecology and management of the North American moose. Contributor Galleries swa. 1998. Major predators can have such an impact on moose populations that they can slow their population growth and hold them below the carrying capacity of the habitat. Moose are also strong swimmers, being known to swim up to 20 km or up to 9.5 km per hour. [169], In Sweden, a road will not be fenced unless it experiences at least one moose accident per km per year. These outputs can be rapidly created from a broad suite of comparative scenarios, and then saved to your unique user account for future reference and display. Live weights of males range from 360 to 600 kg with lengths from 2.4 to 3.1 m. Females range from 270 to 400 kg with lengths 2.3 to 3.0 m. The largest subspecies of moose, Alces alces gigas, occurs in Alaska with a maximum weight of 771 kg for a male and 573 kg for a female. [26] Dispersals from Maine over the years have resulted in healthy, growing populations each in Vermont and New Hampshire, notably near bodies of water and as high up as 3,000 ft (910 m) above sea level in the mountains. However the consumption of moose liver or kidneys significantly increased cadmium intake, with the study revealing that heavy consumers of moose organs have a relatively narrow safety margin below the levels which would probably cause adverse health effects. Moose foraging can inhibit the growth of young trees. Found in northern North America and northern Europe or Asia. [139] The males are polygamous and will seek several females to breed with. Les populations se sont considérablement accrues grâce à l'amélioration de l'habitat et sa protection, mais pour des raisons inconnues, la population d'orignaux diminue rapidement4. Wolves usually follow moose at a distance of 100 to 400 meters (330 to 1,310 ft), occasionally at a distance of 2 to 3 kilometers (1.2 to 1.9 mi). Pulliainen, E. 1974. [114] Moose are excellent swimmers and are known to wade into water to eat aquatic plants. 1974. In North America, the moose range includes almost all of Canada (excluding the arctic and Vancouver Island), most of Alaska, northern New England and upstate New York, the upper Rocky Mountains, northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, [27] Moose reestablished populations in eastern New York and Connecticut and appeared headed south towards the Catskill Mountains, a former habitat. Timmermann, H. 2003. Young bulls with smaller antlers typically retreat from the dominant bull, whereas evenly sized bulls will fight. Most adult male moose have distinctive broad, palmate ("open-hand shaped") antlers; most other members of the deer family have antlers with a dendritic ("twig-like") configuration. Once they reach adulthood, their chances of survival are high. Its antlers were smaller than the Irish elk's, but comparable in size to those of Libralces gallicus. Naturaliste Canadien, 101: 393-415. Journal of Wildlife Research, 1: 138-147. European moose are often more aggressive than North American moose, such as the moose in Sweden, which often become very agitated at the sight of a predator. Furthermore, moose exhibit low variability in mitochondrial DNA worldwide and have relatively low overall genetic diversity compared to other mammals. Huntingand other human ac… RESUME. While the flesh has protein levels similar to those of other comparable red meats (e.g. The historical range of the subspecies extended from well into Quebec, the Maritimes, and Eastern Ontario south to include all of New England finally ending in the very northeastern tip of Pennsylvania in the west, cutting off somewhere near the mouth of the Hudson River in the south. Mammal community dynamics in western coniferous forests: Management and conservation. An electronic "moose detection system" was installed on two sections of the Trans-Canada Highway in Newfoundland in 2011, but the system proved unreliable and was removed in 2015. Bubenik, A. South of the Canada–US border, Maine has most of the population with a 2012 headcount of about 76,000 moose. "Temporal patterns of wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus) foraging in the boreal forest." Their ears are capable of rotating independently, giving them stereophonic hearing. [111] To reach high branches, a moose may bend small saplings down, using its prehensile lip, mouth or body. The female estrous cycle lasts 24 to 25 days, with the length of the heat being 15 to 26 hours. Such proposals remained unimplemented, mainly because the extensive hunting for moose that was deregulated in the 1790s nearly drove it to extinction. For the political party, see, A genus of mammals belonging to the deer, muntjac, roe deer, reindeer, and moose family of ruminants. Il s'y trouvait en faible densite et representait une biomasse de nourriture ongulee inferieure a celle etudiee ailleurs en Amerique du Nord. Kuznetsov, G. 2002. [18][38] Predation of moose calves by brown bear is also significant. The Anchorage Visitor Centers warn tourists that "...a moose with its hackles raised is a thing to fear. This area is considered a less than suitable habitat, and subsequent low numbers of sightings and kills have led to some presumption of this population's failure. Eurasian moose antlers resemble a seashell, with a single lobe on each side. This differs from the Megacerines, such as the Irish elk, which evolved many species before going extinct. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 27, no. [35] For unknown reasons, the moose population is declining rapidly in the Midwest.[18]. [84] In the North Siberian moose (A. a. bedfordiae), the posterior division of the main fork divides into three tines, with no distinct flattening. Moose. "Determining kill rates of ungulate calves by brown bears using neck-mounted cameras.". Young have a reddish brown pelage and are not spotted like other young in the deer family. Moose are thus attracted to marshes and river banks during warmer months as both provide suitable vegetation to eat and water to wet themselves in. Moose mainly stay in the same general area, though some populations migrate between sites favorable at different times of the year. Mammalian Species, 154: 1-7. (On-line). They remain with their mother until about 1 year after their birth, when the mother's next young is born. Novak, R. 1999. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. 578-600 in S Demaris, P Krausman, eds. Waray hini subspecies nga nakalista. 1 sous-espèce est exclusivement européenne : ♦ Alces alcas alces : élan européen : cette sous-espèce habite la Scandinavie, la Finlande, la Alces, 28: 165-173. L. gallicus had many striking differences from its modern descendants. The moose is a browsing herbivore and is capable of consuming many types of plant or fruit. Moose–train collisions were more frequent in winters with above-average snowfall. [94], Both male and female moose have a dewlap or bell,[95] which is a fold of skin under the chin. [172][173][174], Alces alces (the modern moose) appeared during the late Pleistocene epoch. In practical terms this means moose are more vulnerable in areas where wolf or bear populations were decimated in the past but are now rebounding. Hundertmark, K., G. Shields, I. Udina, R. Bowyer, A. Danilkin, C. Schwartz. Moose travel among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements. 3 (2018): 693-701. ", "Factsheet: Eurasian Elk (Elk, reindeer, roe deer (Cetartiodactyla Cervidae Capreolinae) > Alces alces)", "Status of Regional Moose Populations in European and Asiatic Russia", "Så många djur dödas i trafiken varje år | SvD", "Moose Status and Hunting in Washington By Dana L. Base, Associate Wildlife Biologist August 2004", "Palmated antlers of moose may serve as a parabolic reflector of sounds", Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology, "Alces alces, Giant of the Northern Forest", "Moose: Wildlife Notebook Series – Alaska Department of Fish and Game", Wood bison to be listed in Yakutia's Red Data Book, "Info on moose diet from Norwestern University", "USATODAY.com - Researchers take a look at the moose's enigmatic nose", "Deadly diet of hay can bring down a moose - Juneau Empire - Alaska's Capital City Online Newspaper", Tigris Foundation dedicated to the survival of the Amur tiger and leopard in the wild : UK HOME, "Wolf: Wildlife Notebook Series – Alaska Department of Fish and Game", "Brown Bear: Wildlife Notebook Series – Alaska Department of Fish and Game", "Effects of Tree Crushing on Black Bear Predation on Moose Calves", "Gulo gulo – The American Society of Mammalogists", "Moose-eating shark rescued in Newfoundland harbour", "Watching Wolves On a Wild Ride By Les Line, National Wildlife Federation, December/January 2001, vol. Predator-Prey Relationships. These plants are rather low in sodium, and moose generally need to consume a good quantity of aquatic plants. Northeast: A wildlife ecologist estimated 50,000 in New York and New England in 2007, with expansion expected. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Its exact use is unknown, but theories state that it might be used in mating, as a visual and olfactory signal, or as a dominance signal by males, as are the antlers. Dr. Valerius Geist, who emigrated to Canada from the Soviet Union, wrote in his 1999 book Moose: Behaviour, Ecology, Conservation: In Sweden, no fall menu is without a mouthwatering moose dish. 1993. Classification, To cite this page: [40] Biologists studying moose populations typically use warm-season, heat-stress thresholds of between 14 and 24 °C (57 and 75 °F). [137], Moose are also subject to various diseases and forms of parasitism. [87], In extremely rare circumstances, a cow moose may grow antlers. [citation needed], A full-grown moose has few enemies except Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) which regularly prey on adult moose,[120][121][122] but a pack of gray wolves (Canis lupus) can still pose a threat, especially to females with calves. "Alces alces" Scrafford, Matthew A., and Mark S. Boyce. (Bowyer, et al., 2003; Novak, 1999; Regelin and Franzmann, 1998), Vehicle collisions with moose are a serious problem in North America and Europe. Alces alces, com­monly called moose in North Amer­ica and Eurasian elk in Eu­rope, have a cir­cum­po­lar dis­tri­b­u­tion in the bo­real forests of the North­ern Hemi­sphere. Henttonen, H., M. Stubbe, T. Maran, A. Tikhonov. (Franzmann, 1981; Schwartz and Hundertmark, 1993; Hundertmark, et al., 2002; Schwartz, 1992; Schwartz, 2007), Only females take care of their young for a period of one year. Adventure Guide Inside Passage & Coastal Alaska By Ed Readicker-Henderson, Lynn Readicker-Henderson -- Hunter Publishing 2006 Page 49. L. gallicus was 1.25 times larger than the Alaskan moose in linear dimensions, making it nearly twice as massive. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation. Keller, Anna, Marcus Clauss, Evelyne Muggli, and Karl Nuss. Élan Pour les articles homonymes, voir Élan (homonymie), Éland et L Orignal Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. The black moose is (by all that have hitherto writ of it) accounted a very large creature. Immature bulls may not shed their antlers for the winter, but retain them until the following spring. Coniferous or boreal forest, located in a band across northern North America, Europe, and Asia. In northern Europe, the moose botfly is a parasite whose range seems to be spreading.[138]. A moose of either sex that is confronted by danger may let out a loud roar, more resembling that of a predator than a prey animal. 39 no. Moose require access to both young forest for browsing and mature forest for shelter and cover. (Bubenik, 2007; Wilson and Ruff, 1999), Males are distinguished by carrying the largest antlers of any mammal, which can weigh as much as 35 kg in North American moose. [163], In Ontario, Canada, an estimated 265 moose die each year as a result of collision with trains. Franzmann, A. DESCRIPTION. Moose also require access to mineral licks, safe places for calving and aquatic feeding sites. alces de traduction dans le dictionnaire anglais - français au Glosbe, dictionnaire en ligne, gratuitement. [109][110] A moose's diet often depends on its location, but they seem to prefer the new growths from deciduous trees with a high sugar content, such as white birch, trembling aspen and striped maple, among many others. Cadmium intake of moose hunters in Finland from consumption of moose meat, liver and kidney. Peak reproductive age in females is 4 to 12 years of age and 4 to 8 years in males. In Russia, damage to the forestry industry was estimated in millions of rubles, during the 1950's. Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals. 403-439 in A Franzmann, C Schwartz, eds. [25], Since the 1980s, however, moose populations have rebounded, thanks to regrowth of plentiful food sources,[25] abandonment of farmland, better land management, clean-up of pollution, and natural dispersal from the Canadian Maritimes and Quebec. Mga kasarigan. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42: 371-382. One researcher estimated that the Swedish moose population contributed 300,000 metric tons of feces each year to the land. [11], Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, which is also called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti". Its skull and neck structure suggest an animal that fought using high-speed impacts, much like the Dall sheep, rather than locking and twisting antlers the way modern moose combat. [84], The male's antlers grow as cylindrical beams projecting on each side of the head at right angles to the midline of the skull, and then fork. The stag, buck, or male of this kind has a palmed horn, not like that of our common or fallow-deer, but the palm is much longer, and more like that of the German elke. "Linking moose habitat selection to limiting factors." in a Low Biomass Moose (Alces alces) System Bryce C. Lake,12 Jason R. Caikoski3 and Mark R. Bertram1 {Received 23 January 2014; accepted in revised form 9 July 2014) ... La taille des meutes variait de deux à dix loups, pour une taille moyenne de 5,0 loups en novembre 2009 et de 4,8 en mars 2010. Following Bergmann's rule, population in the south (A. a. cameloides) usually grow smaller, while moose in the north and northeast (A. a. buturlini) can match the imposing sizes of the Alaskan moose (A. a. gigas) and are prized by trophy hunters. communicates by producing scents from special gland(s) and placing them on a surface whether others can smell or taste them. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. The moose proboscis likely evolved as an adaptation to aquatic browsing, with loss of the rhinarium, and development of a superior olfactory column separate from an inferior respiratory column. Pp. Most of their vocalizations occur during the rut. . [152], Moose are hunted as a game species in many of the countries where they are found. Moose populations are relatively stable in Siberia and increasing on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite their ungainly appearance, moose are able to run silently through dense forests. Dussault, Christian, Jean‐Pierre Ouellet, Réhaume Courtois, Jean Huot, Laurier Breton, and Hélène Jolicoeur. Disclaimer: Most moose have antlers that are broad and palmate (flat) with tines (points) along the outer edge. Moose and forest problems in Russia. "[146][147][148][149], Studies suggest that the calls made by female moose during the rut not only call the males but can actually induce a bull to invade another bull's harem and fight for control of it. Early experiments were inconclusive, but with the creation of a moose farm at Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve in 1949, a small-scale moose domestication program was started, involving attempts at selective breeding of animals on the basis of their behavioural characteristics. Moose hunting also generates a considerable amount of money to local economies. Naturaliste Canadien, 101: 117-130. [37] The exact causes of specific die-offs are not determined, but most documented mortality events were due to wolf predation, bacterial infection due to injuries sustained from predators, and parasites from white-tailed deer to which moose have not developed a natural defense, such as liver flukes, brain worms and winter tick infestations. 2007. [17], After expanding for most of the 20th century, the moose population of North America has been in steep decline since the 1990s. Le visage des mâles s’assombrit dès la mi-août, alors que le taux de testostérone augmente en prévision de la prochaine saison d’accouplement. humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. [41] However, the minor average temperature increase of 0.83–1.11 °C (1.5–2 °F), over the last 100 years, has resulted in milder winters that induce favorable conditions for ticks, parasites and other invasive species to flourish within the southern range of moose habitat in North America. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts.

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